|Participants of the ISO-2009 |
Participants of the International student olympiad of a 2009 year
|Participants of the ISO-2010 |
It is a category for those who going to make an attempt the forces in the olympiad of 2010. Это категория для тех кто собирается попробовать свои силы в олимпиаде 2010 года
|Participants of the ISO-2011 |
Participants of International student Internet-olympiad from discipline are Safety of living of man Участники Международной студенческой Интернет-олимпиады по дисциплине - Безопасность жизни и деятельности человека
Students are student in a center preparation to participating in an olympiad and also students of internal and extra-mural form teaching wich studying disciplines related to safety of man and nature. Студенты обучающиеся в Центре подготовки к участию в олимпиаде, а также студенты очной и заочной формы обучения, изучающие дисциплины связанные с безопасностью человека и природы.
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Home » 2012 » September » 17 » The basic legislative and normatively legal acts from a labour protection at economic industry
15:45The basic legislative and normatively legal acts from a labour protection at economic industry
Lecture 2 |
The basic legislative and normatively legal acts from a labour protection at economic industry
1. Legislative and normatively legal acts are from a labour protection in industry.
2. A pointer of normatively legal acts is on questions of labour protection.
3. Of a particular branch programs of improvement of the state of safety, hygiene of labour and production environment.
4. Economic industry has position about organization of control the system by a guard labour.
1. Legislative and normatively legal acts are from a labour protection in industry
Normative base, legal base
A legislation about a labour protection is based on positions which answer Constitution of Ukraine. To the article 43, 45, 46, 49, 50, 53, 56 and 64 Constitutions of Ukraine guarantee a right to of citizens of Ukraine work, rest, health protection, medicare and insurance, and also in the case of complete, partial or temporal loss of capacity, loss of bread-winner, in a head and in other cases.
Legislative documents and position from the guard of labour are ratified and given out in different time Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, Cabinet Ukraine, Statutory Broker of Ukraine from a supervision after the guard of labour.
A legislation about a labour protection consists of Law of Ukraine " Code labour protection and other normative acts ".
The law of Ukraine determines a ''pro labour protection" substantive provisions in relation to realization of constitutional right for citizens on the guard of their life and health in the process of labour activity, regulates with participation of the proper public organs relations between the proprietor of enterprise, establishment and organization or authorized organ (farther is a proprietor) and worker on questions of safety, hygiene of labour and production environment and sets the unique order of organization of labour protection in Ukraine.
A public policy in industry of labour protection is fastened Law ( 4) and is based on principles:
• to priority of life and health of workers in accordance with the results of production activity of enterprise, complete responsibility of proprietor for creation of safe and harmless terms of labour;
• complex decision of tasks of guard labour on the basis of the national programs on these questions and taking into account other directions of economic and social policy, achievements in the branch of science and technique and guard of environment;
• social defence of workers, complete reimbursement of losses to the persons which suffered from industrial accidents and professional diseases;
• establishment of the unique norms is from a labour protection for all of enterprises, regardless of patterns of ownership and types of their activity;
• use of economic methods of management of labour, leadthrough of policy of favourable tax treatment, which is instrumental in creation of safe and harmless terms of labour, participation of the state in financing of measures on a labour protection, a guard;
• realization of studies of population, professional preparation and in-plant of workers training is from a labour protection;
• providing of co-ordinating activity of public organs, establishments, organizations and public associations, which work out the different problems of health protection, hygiene and safety of labour, and also collaboration and leadthrough of consultations, between proprietors and workers, between all of task forces at making a decision from a labour protection on local and state levels;
• international cooperation in industry of labour, use of world experience of organization of work protection in relation to the improvement of terms of labour and his safety. All of norms, which answer legislative and normative acts about a guard labours which operate in Ukraine, can be divided into four groups.
To the first group of norms belong requirement in relation to the guard of labour at planning of production objects and capital goods.
Machines, mechanisms, equipments, transport vehicles and technological processes, which are applied in industry and in standards on which requirements are in relation to providing of safety of labour, life and health of people, must have certificates, which certify safety their uses, given out in the set order.
Providing of safety of labour during work on an enterprise provides for the second group of norms (17, 18): order of working and claim of positions, instructions and other acts about a guard labours which operate within the limits of enterprise; a public servant carries out control after the observance of requirements workers in relation to a labour protection; and a worker is under an obligation to know and execute the requirements of normative acts about a labour protection.
To the third group it is possible to take norms, which regulate delivery the workers of overall and other facilities of individual defence, washings off and defuzings facilities and providing a treatment-profilactation feed (9,10).
Requirements have a no less important value in relation to the obligatory medical review of workers of certain categories (19), studies of workers at a hire for job and in the process of work on questions of labour (20) protection, and also financing of measures which provide accordance of terms of labour normative requirements and increases of existent level of labour protection on a production.
In the fourth group of norms of considerable attention gets the organs of state supervision and public inspection after the observance of legislative and other normative acts about a labour (44,48) protection, and also responsibility for violation of legislative acts about a labour protection (49).
Rational mode of labour and rest - the duty of burn-time and rest is physiological grounded during a change, week, month, year, which provides the high and proof capacity of man. Working hours - time during which a worker in accordance with an internal labour order (will decompose, graph or personal pointing of administration) must carry out the labour duties or other incumbent him work is set a law (or on his basis) .
Very important, from the point of view safety of labour, there are state mizhgaluzevi and of a particular branch normative acts about a labour protection.
Going out from the general requirements of guard labours which are contained in the unique normative documents, ministries and other of a particular branch structures of management develop concrete normative acts in relation to creation of harmless and safe terms of labour taking into account an of a particular branch specific - governed, instructions and other documents from accident prevention, sanitary norms. Such documents can be the special for one industry (sectorial) or a few industries (mizhgaluzevi).
Of a particular branch normative documents from a labour of enterprises and establishments of certain ministry (or other administrative structure) protection are developed and become firmly established after the set order establishments of this industry together or on a concordance with a trade union.
Between sectorial legislative acts regulate the terms of labour of works, productions or types equipments which is in different industries, for example, «Governed editing and safe exploitation of elevators», «Governed safety at implementation of unloading works» but other To provide safety and harmlessness of terms of labour of concrete workplaces or production processes, the special instructions which are divided on tipovi (for industry) and for workings on this enterprise are used. They can be developed both for the workers of separate professions (locksmith, electrician and others like that) and for separate works (editing, repair, adjustings, operating and others like that) .
Standards, tts and other normatively technical documents and facilities of labour and technological processes, must include requirement in relation to the guard of labour and to accede to the organs of state supervision after a labour protection.
Ratified in the set order of instruction for workers registered service of labour of enterprise protection in the proper magazine and given out the leaders of subsections under a receipt. Every leader of subsection of enterprise must have a complete set of operating instructions for the workers of all of professions and types of works on this area.
If it is needed to promote strength security and improve the terms of labour, a ministry (or other central leading organ) gives out the special orders or circular letters the proper measures are foreseen in which. If in rules and instructions requirements which it must adhere to for providing of safety and harmlessness absent from accident and production sanitation prevention, the proprietor (administration) of enterprise on a concordance with a trade-union committee accepts necessary measures for prevention of traumatism.
If it be impossible complete removal of dangerous and insalubrious terms of labour a proprietor is under an obligation to report about it the organ of state supervision after a labour protection. On the consent of workers which it touches, he can appeal to the noted organ with a solicitor about establishment of necessary term for implementation of the programs in relation to bringing terms over of labour on a concrete production place to the normative requirements.
The organ of state supervision examines reason of proprietor, determines plenitude of the planned program of works and at presence of grounds can make a decision about establishment of exceptional order of application of the proper norm from a labour protection with determination of terms and terms of the temporal stopping of action of normative act. A proprietor reveals to the proper workers about the decision of organ of state supervision after a labour protection.
State mizhgaluzevi and of a particular branch normative acts about a labour protection are obligatory for implementation in production workshops, laboratories, workshops, on areas and in other places of labour and professional studies of young people.
Working and acceptance of new, revision and abolition of operating state mizhgaluzevikh normative acts about a labour protection is conducted the organs of state supervision after a labour protection with participation of state administration of labour and trade unions a guard in an order, certain Committee of Ministers of Ukraine.
In the case of going into effect state between sectorial and of a particular branch normative acts about a labour and impossibility of removal of dangerous and insalubrious terms of labour protection, a proprietor is under an obligation to report about it the organ of state supervision after a labour protection.
The organ of state supervision examines reason of proprietor, determines plenitude of the planned program of works and at presence of grounds can make a decision about establishment of exceptional order of application of the proper norm from a labour protection with determination of terms and terms of temporal acceptance of action of normative act.
Documents which belong to the state mizhgaluzevikh and of a particular branch normative acts about a labour protection are based on the last achievements of science, technique and practical experience, that instrumental in the improvement of safety, hygiene of labour and production environment.
In obedience to the item of 43 Laws, fundamental and applied scientific researches from the problems of labour, authentication of professional ununconcern protection will be organized within the limits of the national program on these questions and conducted the National research institute of labour protection, and also on self-supporting principles by the institutes of Academy of sciences of Ukraine and other establishments .
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY is an aggregate of actions on different levels menages as a result of which people satisfy the necessities by a production and exchange material welfares and services. Determination of this term is closely related to determination of economy. Activity becomes economic then, when it puts on a purpose or has investigation a production and exchange commodities or services which are acknowledged in quality and useful or rare. Economic activity has a certain sphere of addition of forces: agricultural, industrial, handicraft, activity in the area of import, export, activity of persons of free professions et cetera Term gets along also in general sense. He serves in this case for description, to the volume of all of economic life during some period of time and into certain territorial community; Here activity is measured by such summarizings indexes, as a gross national product, gross domestic product.
ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (from lativ. integer - whole) is an association in unit of some parts. In relation to an economy is an association of being in a charge subjects, deepening of their co-operation, development of close connections between them. Distinguish vertical and horizontal integration. In first case the enterprises of one industry are specialized on making of knots, details, purveyances, necessary for the production of the finished good. Enterprises, the production of which is characterized technological community and homogeneity of products which is produced, unite in the second.
In relation to an international economy - interlacing of national economies and forming on this basis of associate complexes on the production of some goods. Closely related to such processes, as an international division of labor, intergovernmental co-operation and specialization. The objects of international integration can be: trade and custom correlations; currency relations; finances, large investment projects. World integrating development three stages passed: I the stage is expansion of proof economic connections between separate countries, their internationalization (end XIX is the first half of the XX ); The II stage is beginning of becoming of world economy as unique whole and its institutes (IMF, World bank); The III stage is globalization which was begun with 1970th and got most development on a border XX and XXI.
For the modern stage of economic integration characteristic expansion of point-of-sale integration. A tendency operates to washing out of custom barriers between countries, to the removal of untariff limitations. An export quota grows constantly, that a stake of export of commodities and services is in a general world production volume. There are native changes in the pattern of world trade. A particle is steadily increased in it the finished products, and also services: transport, tourist, financial. Specific gravity grows of trading in services, related to intellectual property.
The present level of integration of countries which are included in European Union (ES) is characterized a transition from partial co-ordination in the field of economic development to development of general economic strategy and policy, claim of them basic orientiriv, and also control after their implementation. The higher stage of currency-economic and financial integration is formation of European Currency Union (EVS), in which 11 countries, creations of European Central Bank, entered already. Unique currency - euro - in 2002g. will replace national currencies of countries-members of EVS. The high level of integration is attained also in the region of North-Amerіca. Within the framework OIL (North-Amerіca of free trade zone) co-ordinate the economic activity of the USA, Canada and Mexico.
Based on the principle that Decent Work must be Safe Work, SafeWork aims to create worldwide awareness of the dimensions and consequences of work-related accidents and diseases; to place occupational safety and health (OSH) on the international and national agendas; and to provide support to the national efforts for the improvement of national OSH systems and programmes in line with relevant international labour standards.
GLOBALIZATION, LABOR AND MIGRATION: PROTECTION IS PARAMOUNT Conferencia Hemisférica sobre Migración Internacional: Derechos Humanos y Trata de Personas en las Américas (Santiago de Chile, 20-22 November 2002) Patrick Taran
Eduardo Geronimi INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PROGRAMME
International Labor Office Geneva
Globalization, Labor And Migration: Protection Is Paramount Summary
Under contemporary globalization, international labor mobility has increased, while levels of exploitation and deregulation have accelerated. Lack of legal protection for migrant workers heightens their attractiveness as instruments of “maintaining compeditivity” because they are obliged to work in situations where decent work conditions are not enforced. Irregular migrants are especially vulnerable because the threat of apprehension and deportation thwarts unionizing and exposure of dangerous working conditions.
Current practices regarding labor migration represent fundamental policy dilemmas for States, social partners, and civil society. Many States have placed increasingly strict barriers on legal entry of labor migrants, yet appear to tolerate the presence of large numbers of irregular migrants, especially those working in low-paid sectors lacking offer of national workers. Sectors employing irregular workers are usually those where little or no regulatory activity upholds minimum safety, health and working conditions that should ensure “decent work.” The absence of regulation reinforces employment of irregular migrant workers in substandard conditions, and provides incentive for shifting capital and employment from formal to informal economic activity.
Whether deliberate or not, increasing application of restrictive policies has corresponded in many countries to increasing vilification of migrants –foreigners—in press, political discourse and public sentiments. The association of migrants and migration phenomena with criminality and, now, terrorism appear to be reinforced by usage of terminology of illegal migrants and language of combating illegal migration . In this context, increased occurrence of discrimination and outright violence reported in all regions is clearly more than mere coincidence.
Democratic governance depends on the rule of law; governance of migration and requisite regulation of the labor market are viable only to the extent they derive from a legislative foundation in turn based on sound international standards.
If the rule of law and democracy are to be strengthened under economic and social conditions of globalization, regulation of migration and of the labor market must be strengthened. Just as international refugee standards have become a universal guide for national policy and practice, the complementary existing international instruments for migration should serve as coherent global guidance for both national and international migration policies. Based on these norms and
long experience, ILO proposes five key elements for viable and comprehensive standards-based national policy.
The role of social partner and civil society organizations in promoting comprehensive, sustainable and standards-based approaches to migration by governments is essential. ILO calls for ratification by all States of the complementary package of Conventions 97 and 143 and the 1990 International Convention on migrant workers.
Labor Freedom 51.2
Monetary Freedom 67.7
Trade Freedom 84.4
Investment Freedom 20.0
Financial Freedom 30.0
QUICK FACTS Population: 45.5 million
• GDP (PPP):
o $305.2 billion
o 4.2% growth
o 1.0% 5-year compound annual growth
o $6,712 per capita
• Inflation (CPI):
• FDI Inflow:
o $6.5 billion
Ukraine's economic freedom score is 46.1, making its economy the 163rd freest in the 2012 Index. Its score is 0.3 point higher than last year, reflecting modest gains in monetary freedom and freedom from corruption. Ukraine is ranked last out of 43 countries in the Europe region, and its overall score is lower than the world average.
The foundations of economic freedom are fragile in Ukraine and unevenly established across the country. Poor protection of property rights and widespread corruption discourage entrepreneurial activity, severely undermining prospects for long-term economic expansion. The rule of law is weak, and the judicial system remains susceptible to substantial political interference.
After several years of strong growth, Ukraine's economic vitality has deteriorated, partly because of the global economic slowdown and also because of the generally sluggish pace of efforts to improve regulatory efficiency and open markets to international investment. The financial sector is not developed enough to provide the necessary credit for private-sector expansion, and the regulatory environment remains opaque and burdensome. Recent large fiscal deficits have strained public finances, forcing Ukraine to confront the challenge of restoring sustainable levels of public spending.
The Ukraine has been independent since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. president Victor Yanukovych of the Party of Regions, elected in January 2010, has fast-tracked rapprochement with Russia, harassed the political opposition, and impeded freedom of the press. Russia's Black Sea Fleet's naval base lease has been extended until 2042 in exchange for discounted Russian gas. Parliament has rejected plans to join NATO, but Ukraine joined the World Trade Organization in 2008 and the European Union's Eastern Partnership in 2009.Ukraine has well-developed industry, rich agricultural lands, and significant natural resources. It is also an important route for oil and gas exports from Russia to Western Europe. Corruption and government intervention in the economy continue to undermine economic growth.
2. A pointer of normatively legal acts is on questions of labour protection
23. Koksokhimichna and oil-processing industry ( 1 ell. )
11. Booty of hydrocarbons ( 1 ell. )
62.0. Aviation transport ( 1 ell. )
0.00. A few types of economic activity ( 44 ells. )
01.2. Stock-raising ( 3 ells. )
02.0. Forestry ( 1 ell. )
05. Fish economy ( 5 ell. )
10.0. Mining and peat ( 22 ells. )
14.0. Booty of non-metallic minerals ( 1 ell. )
15. Food retail industry ( 1 ell. )
17. Textile industry ( 6 ell. )
18. Production of store clothes and fur ( 1 ell. )
19. Production of skin and skin shoe ( 4 ells. )
20.0. Woodworking industry ( 2 ells. )
24.0. Chemical production ( 4 ells. )
22. Publishing business ( 1 ell. )
25. Rubber and plastic industry ( 1 ell. )
26. Production of non-metal mineral wares ( 3 ells. )
27. Metallurgy ( 7 ell. )
28. Treatment of metal ( 3 ells. )
29.0. Production of machines and equipment ( 2 ells. )
31. Production of electric machines and apparatus ( 3 ells. )
32. A production of equipment is for radio, television and connection ( 1 ell. )
35. Production of a transport equipment ( 2 ells. )
45.2. Building ( 1 ell. )
60. Ground vehicle ( 4 ells. )
63. Additional transport services and auxiliary operations ( 9 ell. )
80.0. Education ( 1 ell. )
92. Sphere of rest, entertainments, culture and sport ( 2 ells. )
0.00. A few types of economic activity
Norms of free delivery of the special clothes, special shoe and other facilities of individual defence to the workers of general professions of different industries of industry (to load a document is Part 1, part 2 ).
It is ratified: an order of Derzhgirpromnaglyadu is from 16.04.2009 № 62.
It is incorporated in Ministry of justice of Ukraine 12.05.2009 after № 424/16440.
With going into effect by an order to respect such which is not used on territory of Ukraine a section 1 of ««Model norms of free delivery of the special clothes, special shoe and other facilities of individual defence a worker and office worker of through professions and positions of all of industries of national economy and separate productions», », ratified the decision of the Statutory broker of the USSR from labour and social questions and Presidium of All-union Central Advice of Trade Unions from February, 12, 1981 № 47/П-2.
Occupational safety and health
The ILO Constitution sets forth the principle that workers should be protected from sickness, disease and injury arising from their employment. Yet for millions of workers the reality is very different. Some two million people die every year from work-related accidents and diseases. An estimated 160 million people suffer from work-related diseases, and there are an estimated 270 million fatal and non-fatal work-related accidents per year. The suffering caused by such accidents and illnesses to workers and their families is incalculable. In economic terms, the ILO has estimated that 4% of the world's annual GDP is lost as a consequence of occupational diseases and accidents. Employers face costly early retirements, loss of skilled staff, absenteeism, and high insurance premiums due to work-related accidents and diseases.Yet many of these tragedies are preventable through the implementation of sound prevention, reporting and inspection practices. ILO standards on occupational safety and health provide essential tools for governments, employers, and workers to establish such practices and to provide for maximum safety at work. In 2003 the ILO adopted an global strategy to improve occupational safety and health which included the introduction of a preventive safety and health culture, the promotion and development of relevant instruments, and technical assistance.
The ILO has adopted more than 40 standards specifically dealing with occupational safety and health, as well as over 40 Codes of Practice.Nearly half of ILO instruments deal directly or indirectly with occupational safety and health issues.
Fundamental principles of occupational safety and health
• Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) - [ ratifications ] and its Protocol of 2002 - [ ratifications ]
The convention provides for the adoption of a coherent national occupational safety and health policy, as well as action to be taken by governments and within enterprises to promote occupational safety and health and to improve working conditions. This policy shall be developed by taking into consideration national conditions and practice. The Protocol calls for the establishment and the periodic review of requirements and procedures for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and for the publication of related annual statistics.
• Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161) - [ ratifications ]
This convention provides for the establishment of enterprise-level occupational health services which are entrusted with essentially preventive functions and which are responsible for advising the employer, the workers and their representatives in the enterprise on maintaining a safe and healthy working environment.
• Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187) - [ ratifications ]
This Convention aims at promoting a preventative safety and health culture and progressively achieving a safe and healthy working environment. It requires ratifying States to develop, in consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and workers, a national policy, national system, and national programme on occupational safety and health. The national policy shall be developed in accordance with the principles of Article 4 of the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) , and the national systems and programmes shall be developed taking into account the principles set out in relevant ILO instruments. A list of relevant instruments is contained in the Annex to the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 2006 (No. 197) . National systems shall provide the infrastructure for implementing national policy and programmes on occupational safety and health, such as laws and regulations, authorities or bodies, compliance mechanisms including systems of inspection, and arrangements at the level of the undertaking. National programmes shall include time-bound measures to promote occupational safety and health, enabling a measuring of progress.
• Further relevant instruments
Health and safety in particular branches of economic activity
• Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 (No. 120) - [ ratifications ]
This instrument has the objective of preserving the health and welfare of workers employed in trading establishments, and establishments, institutions and administrative services in which workers are mainly engaged in office work and other related services through elementary hygiene measures responding to the requirements of welfare at the workplace.
• Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152) - [ ratifications ]
See under dockworkers.
• Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 (No. 167) - [ ratifications ]
The convention provides for detailed technical preventive and protective measures having due regard for the specific requirements of this sector. These measures relate to safety of workplaces, machines and equipment used, work at heights and work executed in compressed air.
• Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176) - [ ratifications ]
This instrument regulates the various aspects of safety and health characteristic for work in mines, including inspection, special working devices, and special protective equipment of workers. It also prescribes requirements relating to mine rescue.
• Safety and Heal th in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184) - [ ratifications ]
The convention has the objective of preventing accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with, or occurring in the course of agricultural and forestry work. To this end, the Convention includes measures relating to machinery safety and ergonomics, handling and transport of materials, sound management of chemicals, animal handling, protection against biological risks, and welfare and accommodation facilities.
Protection against specific risks
• Radiation Protection Conven tion, 1960 (No. 115) - [ ratifications ]
The objective of the Convention is to set out basic requirements with a view to protect workers against the risks associated with exposure to ionising radiations. Protective measures to be taken include the limitation of workers' exposure to ionising radiations to the lowest practicable level following the technical knowledge available at the time, avoiding any unnecessary exposure, as well as the monitoring of the workplace and of the workers' health. The Convention further refers to requirements with regard to emergency situations that may arise.
• Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No. 139) - [ ratifications ]
This instrument aims at the establishment of a mechanism for the creation of a policy to prevent the risks of occupational cancer caused by exposure, generally over a prolonged period, to chemical and physical agents of various types present in the workplace. For this purpose, states are obliged to determine periodically carcinogenic substances and agents to which occupational exposure shall be prohibited or regulated, to make every effort to replace these substances and agents by non- or less carcinogenic ones, to prescribe protective and supervisory measures as well as to prescribe the necessary medical examinations of workers exposed.
• Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vib ration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148) - [ ratifications ]
The convention provides that, as far as possible, the working environment shall be kept free from any hazards due to air pollution, noise or vibration. To achieve this, technical measures shall be applied to enterprises or processes, and where this is not possible, supplementary measures regarding the organization of work shall be taken instead.
• Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) - [ ratifications ]
Aims at preventing the harmful effects of exposure to asbestos on the health of workers by indicating reasonable and practicable methods and techniques of reducing occupational exposure to asbestos to a minimum. With a view to achieving this objective, the convention enumerates various detailed measures, which are based essentially on the prevention and control of health hazards due to occupational exposure to asbestos, and the protection of workers against these hazards.
• Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) - [ ratifications ]
The Convention provides for the adoption and implementation of a coherent policy on safety in the use of chemicals at work, which includes the production, the handling, the storage, and the transport of chemicals as well as the disposal and treatment of waste chemicals, the release of chemicals resulting from work activities, and the maintenance, repair and cleaning of equipment and containers of chemicals. In addition, it allocates specific responsibilities to suppliers and exporting states.
Codes of Practice
ILO Codes of Practice set out practical guidelines for public authorities, employers, workers, enterprises, and specialized occupational safety and health protection bodies (such as enterprise safety committees). They are not legally binding instruments and are not intended to replace the provisions of national laws or regulations, or accepted standards. Codes of Practice provide guidance on safety and health at work in certain economic sectors (eg construction, opencast mines, coal mines, iron and steel industries, non-ferrous metals industries, agriculture, shipbuilding and ship repairing, forestry), on protecting workers against certain hazards (eg radiation, lasers, visual display units, chemicals, asbestos, airborne substances), and on certain safety and health measures (eg occupational safety and health management systems; ethical guidelines for workers' health surveillance; recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases; protection of workers' personal data; safety, health and working conditions in the transfer of technology to developing countries).
• Plan of action (2010-2016) to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments (Convention No. 155, its 2002 Protocol and Convention No. 187)
• General Survey on Occupational Safety and Health (2009)
• ILO standards-related activities in the area of occupational safety and health: An in-depth study for discussion with a view to the elaboration of a plan of action for such activities (Report VI, International Labour Conference, 91st Session, 2003)
• General Survey on Safety in the Working Environment (1987) )
• ILO Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment
Business aspects of OSH
Improvement of health and safety at work is important not only in human terms, to reduce workers' pain and suffering, but also as a way of ensuring that enterprises are successful and sustainable, and that economies thrive in the long term.
Every year, 4.9 million accidents result in more than 3 days' absence from work. The cost of accidents at work and occupational illness ranges for most countries from 2.6 to 3.8% of Gross National Product (GNP). It costs individual businesses, as well as national economies.
National economies and individual businesses with better standards of occupational safety and health (OSH), meanwhile, tend to be more successful.
Good safety and health is good business.
Whatever your particular area of interest or industry sector, you will find here information and advice to help you understand the business case for good safety and health – how it relates to economic performance, and why good OSH is worth investing in.
• Why is a good working environment good for business?
• Benefits for Large Enterprises
• Benefits for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
• Insurance and OSH
• Investors and OSH
• Benefits of good OSH in construction and infrastructure procurement
• National economies and OSH
• A good working environment is good business
• OSH and Corporate Social Responsibility
Why is a good working environment good for business?
In spite of extensive efforts, the number of occupational accidents and diseases remains high and the costs for society, companies and individuals are unacceptable. There is a relationship however, between a good working environment and good company performance.Research, including case studies, has shown that investing in safety and health leads to better company performance.
Accidents at work and occupational injuries represent a considerable economic burden for individuals, employers and to society as a whole. For smallcompanies in particular, accidents can have a major financial impact. Some of these costs, such as lost workdays or lost income, are obvious and can be expressed readily in monetary terms. However, many of the economic consequences of accidents are hidden to some extent, or cannot be easily quantified.
It is not only this range of costs that enterprises must be aware of, but also the added benefits that proper management of safety and health bring. Studies have clearly shown that an efficient and integrated management of occupational safety and health is closely related to business excellence and profitability.
What benefits can good safety and health bring?
Healthy workers are more productive and can produce at a higher quality;
Fewer work-related accidents and diseases lead to less absence. In turn, this results in lower costs and less disruption of the production processes;
Equipment and a working environment that are optimised to the needs of the working process and that are well-maintained lead to higher productivity, better quality and less health and safety risks;
Reduction of injuries and illnesses means less damages and lower risks for liabilities.
3. Of a particular branch programs of improvement of the state of safety, hygiene of labour and production se-redovischa.
A cabinet Ukraine marks that the National program of improvement of the state of safety, hygiene of labour and production environment was mainly executed. During realization of the program bases are stopped up for introduction of economic methods of management of labour a guard in the state, creation of the of a particular branch, regional and production programs is founded on questions of labour protection, the network of the specialized centers is organized for examination of the technical state of production objects, increase of safety of their exploitation; developed and inculcated the unique is automated informative system; the National research institute of labour protection, Scientifically informative and educational center, naukovo-virobnichiy magazine "labour Protection", services of labour in the regional, district and city organs of state executive power protection, is created; the pre-production model of the automated checking of pilovibukhonebezpechnosti and defence of network of the mountain making system is developed and made on coal mines from the explosions of dust; the issue of many facilities of individual defence is organized, that before not produced in Ukraine. The row of other important tasks is decided.
The however carried out measures so far did not bring the state over of safety and terms of labour to the noticeable improvement. The level of production traumatism and professional diseases in Ukraine remains higher, than in other countries of the CIS. At the same time in metallurgical, chemical, easy and textile industries of industry, and also on the enterprises of Winnitca, Volinskoy, Ivano-Francovsk, Mikolaivskoy, Poltava, Sumskoy areas and in m. Kyiv the amount of lost was increased. Work from the guard of labour is unsatisfactorily organized in an agroindustrial complex, where in the last year the unhappy are sufferet cases with mortal investigation 36 percents them general amount in a public production.
Position causes an alarm with a labour on the enterprises of coal industry protection. As a result of profzakhvoryuvan' and labour injury it is translated on disability generous amount men. Considerable increase of level of mortal traumatism and accident rate on a production on the whole on Ukraine observed in a cy. High is a level of traumatism on the enterprises of Ministry of coal industry, Ministry of agriculture and food, and also on enterprises in Autonomous Republic Crimea, Winnitca, Donetsk, Ivano-Francovsk, Kirovogradskiy, Lugansk, Mikolaivskiy, Odessa, Kharkov, Khmel'nickiy and other areas.
Principal reasons of high level of traumatism and accident rate on a production are low labour and technological discipline, exploitation of plenty of morally ramshackle and physically threadbare buildings, machines and equipment, considerable lack of protiavariynoy apparatus, and also facilities of individual defence of workings, which 15-30 percents make material well-being, low level of knowledges from accident of labour prevention.
Not always the decisions of Cabinet Ukraine are executed in relation to the personal responsibility of ministers, leaders of departments, Council of ministers of Autonomous Republic Crimea, area, district, Kievan and Sevastopol city state administrations, executive committees of village, settlement and city Soviets, enterprises, establishments, organizations for co-ordination and control of work on questions of labour protection. Efficiency of management of labour a guard does not answer the requirements of segodennya on state, of a particular branch, regional and production levels. Deep fundamental and applied scientific researches are not carried out in a necessary volume for the potentially most dangerous undertaking, productions and objects in relation to warning and liquidation of technogenic failures. Low are a technical level and rates of development of production of devices of complex diagnostics of the state of equipment of enhanceable danger and production environment. To this time the economic instruments of creation of safe and harmless terms of labour do not work on a production. A substantial improvement is required by the informative providing and propaganda of labour protection.
4.It’s the position about organization of control the system by a guard labour at economic industry
Organizational structure of management
Multilevel control the system labour of SUOP, the functional links of which are the proper structures of state legislative and executive power of different levels, administrative structures of enterprises, labour collectives, trade unions, voluntarily public associations of workers and specialists from a labour protection, by a guard functions in Ukraine. The effective functioning of this system is possible at presence of lines and feed-backs between its separate links and clear implementation of plenary powers in relation to the questions of labour within the limits of every separate link of the system protection.
The ultimate goal of functioning of control the system by a guard labour is preparation, acceptance and realization of decisions in relation to realization of organizational, technical, sanitary-hygenic and likuval'no-profilaktichnikh measures and facilities, directed on providing of safety, maintainance of health and capacity of man in the process of labour. Thus every link of the system carries out preparation, acceptance and realization of these decisions in accordance with the level and functional duties in control the system by a guard labour.
After the orientation of complex of solvable questions all of links of control the system by a guard labour can be divided into two groups:
- links which provide decisions legislatively normative, scientific and technical, socio-economic and other general questions of labour protection;
- links in the functional duties of which providing of safety of labour is included in the conditions of concrete industries and productions.
It is needed to mark some convention of such division, as between links direct and reverse connection, and the links of the second group are not deprived rights for the initiative raising and ground of decision of separate questions from a guard labours which are included in their jurisdiction.
In the first group of lanocs of control the system by a guard labour the organs of state initiation of bill and organs of state administration are included in industry of labour protection, in a that number:
• Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine;
• Cabinet Ukraine;
• A committee is on a supervision after the guard of labour of Ukraine;
• ministries and other central executive public authorities;
• local state administrations, local advices of folk deputies .
Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine at the initiative and in co-operating with the proper structures of state executive power determines a public policy in industry of labour protection, decides the question of improvement and development of legislative base of labour protection, social questions, related to the state of terms and labour protection.
A cabinet Ukraine provides realization of public policy in industry of labour protection, coming from consisting of labour protection of the state will organize national program development in relation to the improvement of this state, asserts these programs and controls their implementation, determines the functions of executive public authorities in relation to the decision of questions of labour and supervision after the guard of labour protection.
For the decision of these questions at Cabinet Ukraine National advice functions on questions of safe vital functions of population, which is headed by the vice-prime minister of Ukraine.
A committee on a supervision after the guard of labour of Ukraine (Derzhnaglyadokhoronpraci) carries out the complex management of labour a guard at state level, will realize a public policy in this industry, develops with participation of the proper organs the government programs in industry of labour protection, co-ordinates work of public organs and associations of enterprises on questions of safety of labour, works over and looks over jointly with competent organs the system of indexes and account of terms and safety of labour, carries out international cooperation on questions of labour protection and supervision after will guard labours in the state and others like that.
Decision of Committee on a supervision after the guard of labour of Ukraine which belongs to his jurisdiction, obligatory for implementation all of ministries, other central executive public authorities, local state administrations, local advices of folk deputies and enterprises.
The ministry of labour and social policy of Ukraine carries out state examination of terms of labour, determines an order and carries out control after quality of leadthrough of attestation of workplaces in relation to their accordance normative acts about a labour protection, takes part in development of normative acts about a labour protection.
Other ministries and central executive public authorities, as links of control the system by a guard labour, determine the scientific and technical policy of industry in relation to the questions of labour protection, develop and will realize complex measures on the improvement of safety of labour, carry out methodical guidance activity of enterprises of industry from a labour protection, co-operate with of a particular branch trade unions in relation to the decision of questions of safety of labour, finance working and revision of normative acts about a labour protection, organize studies and verification of knowledges of rules and norms of labour leading workers and specialists of industry protection in the set order, create, after a necessity, the professional are militarized avariyno-ryatuval'ni formings, carry out interdepartment control after the state of labour protection.
For providing implementations set forth above of functions services of labour protection are created in the vehicles of ministries and other central executive public authorities.
Local state administrations and advices of folk deputies within the limits of jurisdiction them territory provide realization of public policy in industry of labour protection, form with participation of trade unions the local programs of measures on the improvement of safety, hygiene of labour and production environment, carry out control after inhibition of normative acts about a labour protection. For providing of implementation of the adopted functions at local executive public authorities the proper structural subdivisions are created.
The administrative structures of enterprises provide in the conditions of concrete productions realization of requirements of legislative and normative acts about a labour with the purpose of creation of safe and harmless terms of labour, warning of production traumatism and professional diseases protection, decide all of complex of questions from a labour protection, related to this production. In the activity in relation to a labour protection the administrative structures of enterprises co-operate with a commission on questions of labour of enterprise (at presence of such) protection, with the trade unions of enterprise and upovnovazhenimi of labour collectives .
To the basic functions of administrative structures of enterprises as links belong in control the system by a guard labour:
• organization and co-ordination of work in industry of labour protection;
• control after the state of labour and functioning of SUOP protection;
• account, analysis and estimation of indexes of the state of labour protection;
• stimulation of activity is from a labour protection.
Organization and co-ordination of works in industry of labour protection must foresee forming of control the system labour, establishment of duties and order of co-operation of persons which take part in a management by a guard, and also in acceptance and realization of administrative decisions.
Planning of works from a labour protection includes determination of tasks subsections and services.
Control after the state of labour protection must be sprya-movaniy on verification of the state of terms of labour, exposure of deviations from the requirements of standards, norms and rules from a labour protection, verification of implementation services and subsections of the duties in industry of labour protection and on acceptance of effective measures on liquidation of failings.
An account, analysis and estimation of indexes of the state of labour and functioning of SUOP protection, is basis for development and acceptance of administrative decisions by the leaders of all of levels.
Stimulation of activity in relation to a labour protection it is needed to send to creation of the personal interest of workers in providing of safe and healthy terms of labour on workplaces. Kinds, forms of financial and moral stimulation, are developed by administration of enterprise together with trade unions and labour collective.
Basic directions of activity of administrative structures of enterprises in relation to the management of labour a guard is: studies of workers to the labour protection; providing of safety of production equipment, production processes; providing of safety of buildings and buildings; normalization of sanitary-hygenic terms of labour; providing workings of individual defence facilities; providing of the optimum modes of labour and rest of workers; organization treatment - prophylactic maintenance of workers; sanitary domestic consumer services of workers; professional selection of shots.
Studies and preparation of workers are one of terms of highly productive labour without traumas and failures. This studies must be conducted in obedience to the operating norms of organs of state supervision after a labour protection and of a particular branch norms. Safety of exploitation of production equipment and production processes must be arrived at the observances of positions of standards, norms and rules of labour protection, and after a necessity by introduction of more safe machines and technologies.
Safety of labour in relation to production buildings and buildings is arrived at the observance of requirements of build norms and rules in the process of their planning, building, exploitation and repair, and also requirements of other norms in relation to shopfloors.
Normalization of sanitary-hygenic terms of labour must be arrived at liquidation of reasons of origin of harmful factors on workplaces and application of effective measures and facilities of individual and collective defence. Providing of individual defence facilities is carried out in accordance with operating norms and set order of their delivery, storage and use.
Providing of the optimum modes of labour and rest must be foreseen for all of workers taking into account the specific of their labour, foremost for workings with the enhanceable physical and nervously emotional loading, terms of monotony of labour, presence of dangerous and harmful production factors.
Organization of likuval'no-profilaktichnogo maintenance of workers foresees previous (at arranging on work) and periodic medical reviews, likuval'no-profilaktichne feed and realization of likuval'no-profilaktichnikh measures with the purpose of warning of professional diseases of workers.
Sanitary domestic consumer services foresee providing of workers sanitary domestic apartments in obedience to operating norms.
A professional selection is aimed at establishment of physiology and psikhofiziologichnoy accordance of man separate professions (drivers, machinists of electric locomotives, diesel engines and other machines). The law of Ukraine «On a labour protection» forbids the conclusion of labour treaty with a citizen at presence of contra-indications in relation to implementation of work which he applies on .
The Organizationally functional diagram of UOP is based on co-ordinating the role of department of labour protection, which takes part in realization of all of functions of management, related to safety of labour.
The public organs of management of labour a guard inform the population of Ukraine of the proper region, workers of industry and labour collectives about realization of public policy from a labour, implementation of the national, territorial or of a particular branch programs protection from these questions, about a level and reasons of accident rate, production traumatism and professional diseases, about implementation of the decisions in relation to the guard of life of t and health of workers.
At state level the unique state statistical accounting is conducted on questions of labour protection.
Control the system by a guard labour contains a management object, informatively control copulas and managing organ. The object of UOP is activity in relation to providing of optimum terms and safety of labour on workplaces, areas and in workshops.
A managing organ is service of labour protection, leaders of structural subdivisions of all of levels of management industry, association, enterprise. A management is carried out by collection and estimation of information, exposure of deviations from the set requirements and by realization of managing influences on the object of management by organizationally - managing, economic and socially psychological methods
UOP is the hierarchical multilevel system which sets such even managements:
• industry (guidance, scientific and technical advice, department of labour protection);
• association (guidance, scientific and technical advice, department of labour protection);
• production enterprises;
• workshops, areas of workshops;
• workplaces(concrete performers) of Management of labour a guard carried out realization of the followings functions:
• prognostication and planning of measures is on providing of safety of labour;
• creation of organizational structure;
• quantitative estimation of strength of labour security;
• there is collection and registration of initial state information terms and safety of labour;
• development and forming of list of managers of influences;
• stimulation of work in relation to safety of labour. Responsibility for realization of management of labour a guard in industry and in subsections depends upon their leaders within the limits of their post jurisdiction.
Financing and economic stimulation of labour protection is examined as one of major parts of UOP.
On enterprises, in industries and at state level in set Cabinet Ukraine of order the funds of labour protection are created.
The same funds can be created the organs of local regional self-government for the necessities of region.
On an enterprise facilities of the indicated fund are utillized only on implementation of measures which provide taking of terms of safety of labour to the normative requirements or increase of existent level of labour protection on a production.