Theme 4. LIFE SAFETY-THROUGH FOR EMERGENCIES
4. The dangers of man-made
5. Insurance documentation
6. The danger of weapons
4. The dangers of man-made disasters
The most serious man-made disasters on the territory of Ukraine
may occur at power plants, chemical and petroleum pro-industry, hydraulic
structures. A significant danger
is posed as metallurgy, transportation, and mining.
According to statistics, these industries are the most dangerous-governmental
in terms of creating an emergency for the entire world (Bhopal, Bashkiria). Major accident kills hundreds and even
thousands of lives and causing huge property and environmental damage. In this case, it should be recalled
alarming trend of increasing scale disasters, ie, to "extremely."
the most dangerous is the chemical industry because of its broad development
(1,200 plants in 140 cities, but the annual produce 260 tons of toxic
substances, ammonia - a wire length of 814 km - in every kilometer of 55 tons of
ammonia under the pressure of 90 atm.). In
areas of possible contamination of the chemical, ie, of the spilled or vaporized toxic
substances, there are more than 22 million people.
When chemical accidents toxic substances spilled on thousands of square meters,
and the poisonous cloud spread to a depth of tens of kilometers and forms a
zone of contamination in the area hundreds of square kilometers.
The greatest danger of nuclear energy facilities are. The number of nuclear power is much
smaller than the objects of the chemical industry (5 AES).
However, due to the exceptional magnitude
of possible disaster, nuclear power plants can be considered relatively in
greatest dangerous objects in terms of creating an emergency.
disaster - the largest man-caused disaster in the world in its consequences. The contaminated
with radioactive (p / a) substantial in
Ukraine, Belarus and Russia are about 1 million people., Resettled hundreds of
thousands of people.
The disaster at the nuclear power plant as a chemical facility
may be accompanied by fire and explosion (even nuclear). Thus, a complex
lesion with striking factors: high temperatures, the products of combustion,
shock, falling parts constructions,
For the territory
of Ukraine are very
dangerous accident sites the oil and gas industry (8 refineries, tank farms
more than 800, more than four thousand miles to oil and gas pipelines - one
mile of 250 tons of fuel).
Most of the potential danger to Ukraine can present 13 large
hydraulic structures. In areas where flooding is possible hydro-affecting factors
which have already been discussed earlier.
In recent years the relationship manifested emergency
situations of technogenic nature with the provision of human activity in big
cities. An example is the accident at the sewage plant (village
Dikanevka, Kharkiv region) in 1997. As a result of failure of the sewer system, water supply was
turned off for a few months' in the city with a population of nearly 2 million
residents in one of the hottest periods of the year (June-August). Factors affecting
this situation, it turned were-activation of the high temperature environment,
the deterioration of the epidemiological situation, etc.
Analysis of technogenic emergencies - in the
structure is dominated by technical reasons satisfactory technical-mechanical
state of the production facilities and a significant deterioration of the
ground of productive assets, mainly due to the difficult economic status of
industrial enterprises, which does not allow a timely and fully implement the
necessary activities for technical upgrading.
Among the causes of organizational core is a violation of
security requirements during the operation of the equipment, machinery,
vehicles and non-compliance with the rules of technological production
As part of psycho-physiological causes of the most typical
are-are instances of unlawful acts of individuals and deliberate violation of
the rules of the road during vehicle operation.
By the elimination of man-made emergencies that arose
involved sub-Ukrainian Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population
Protection from the consequences of Chernobyl disaster, other ministries and
central and local executive bodies, enterprises and organizations.
The greatest number of disaster-related fires and
explosions, arises in the Donetsk
and Lugansk regions.
The technical nature of the causes of man-made emergencies
at industrial facilities inherent in most of these emergencies, chief among
them is the poor maintenance of states of fixed assets.
High particle is purely organizational causes of
emergencies, through evidence of a low technological discipline in production
well, especially the environmentally hazardous, ignoring the requirements of
environmental regulations and standards in the industry, building, utilities, transportation and other areas.
Therefore, an emergency peace time, as a rule, are
characterized by significant areas of the damaging factors, their high
intensity and a combination of several hazards. However, more
complex and major emergencies may arise in a military conflict. The events of the
last decade of the twentieth century, suggest the need to consider the
influence of military conflicts on the livelihoods of the civilian population.
5. Insurance documentation
In carrying out rescue operations, elimination of
emergency situations and liquidation functions of accidents and disasters, it
is very important documentation that reflects the state of the communications
system of objects, their architecture, composition, etc. As a rule,
resulting in conflict situations, documents, especially on paper,
destroyed, or acquire a look that is difficult to use them. In addition, there are situations where
access to documents is not possible for various reasons we (fire, theft, flood,
etc.), and the measures to be taken urgently.
Documentation is required rescuers to perform their
functions. And also, those who lost it, for various reasons, to restore the
functioning of the production or organization. And in the end,
it is necessary-bob to investigate the cause and development of emergency
measures for the Alert the possible repetition of such situations.
Insurance fund documentation was created by the Council of
ministers of the USSR
of April 13, 1959. However, his work was classified as its main purpose,
at the time of creation, has been booking information for the needs of
mobilization preparation of the USSR.
the insurance fund documentation was created in accordance with the Decree of
President of Ukraine from October 21, 1992. Since 1992, Ukraine started functioning State Research - Production Center
insurance fund documentation of Ukraine,
as the central authority for the organization and management of the
establishment and functioning of the insurance fund documentation of Ukraine.
The documentation is stored in the traditional manner on
paper, are constantly at risk of being lost as a result of natural and manmade
disasters. Computer media can not ensure long-term preservation of
information chit and after a few years (2-3 years old, in bad conditions, or
5-10 years for good) may be lost. Also note that access to information does not change but the
carriers do not allow it considered reliable.
The above-mentioned drawbacks are deprived of microfilm,
which ensure the preservation of information guaranteed at least 150 years old. The volume of
information on microfilm at the standard reduction of the volume is 70 times
smaller, which facilitates the task of creating special devices to store them. These devices
preclude their loss or damage.
Of particular importance, this work has acquired since 2001 in connection with the
release of the Law of Ukraine "On insurance fund documentation of Ukraine"
(March 22, 2001). In this law the main tasks have been identified, legal,
economic, and organizational position on the insurance fund documentation.
Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population
Protection from Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe, was approved by the Programmer
of Action of the State Department of Insurance form orientation of documents
relating to the implementation of state policy in sphere of protection of the
population and territories from emergency situations of Technology and Natural
character warning and control them in periods of up to 2005.
The main provisions of the state insurance foundation of
• Obligation to maintain records necessary for the needs
of the defense Ukraine, the recovery of production,
operation and maintenance of production of defense, mobilization, and economic
importance, for construction (reconstruction), rescue and emergency and
recovery operations during emergency situations and in the special period, and for the
preservation of cultural heritage;
• Preservation of State and other statutory secrecy;
• Compliance with legislation of Ukraine on Copyright;
The main objectives of the State Department's insurance
fund before it:
• Coordinate and monitor the formation of an insurance
fund of the documentation of Ukraine, its conduct, maintaining and issuing
documentation provided to users of the insurance fund documentation;
• conducting the State register of documents of the
• Maintenance of State Register of man-made and
environmentally hazardous facilities in Ukraine;
• Organize and conduct research in the formation and
preservation of records of the insurance fund of Ukraine (the Law of Ukraine
"On Ukraine's insurance fund documentation").
Particular attention should be paid to the certification
of potentially hazardous objects (PHO) and maintenance of the state register of
January 18, 2001 Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma signed
a Ukraine "On the objects of increased danger." This law defined
the legal, economic, social and institutional foundations of ventures,
associated with the objects of increased danger, and seeks ways to protect
human health and environment from the harmful effects of accidents at these
sites by preventing their occurrence, constraints (localization) development and
In accordance with this Act, the declaration must hold
business entities such objects. Declaration of dangerous is a document that defines a set
of activity to that used by business for the aim of accident prevention,
preparedness and containment, elimination of accidents and their consequences.
The order declaring major hazard risk is approved by the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated July 11, 2002 № 956. The document
states that it applies to all business entities owned or user-research
institutes which have high-risk facilities, as well as on all subjects of
economic activities that have the intention to start building the proof-objects
of increased danger.
In analyzing the risk of increased danger to use at DSTU
2156-93 "Bezpechnіst Promyslova pіdpriemstv. Termіn is the
curvature-chennya. "DSTU 2960-94" Organіzatsіya Promyslova
virobnitstva. Osnovnі in nyattya termіni viznachennya that. "
Work on the certification of potentially dangerous objects
(PDO) and territories of the risks of emergencies, those nogennogo natural
character, and the establishment of the State Register of PDO is performed in
accordance with the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine 7.02.01.g. Number 122. The main
objective of this work - is to identify all considerably the potential sources
of emergencies, provision of accounting and oversight at the state level and
the selection of these high-risk sites (ie sites with a higher chance of
accidents and the highest big dangerous consequences of possible accidents
Emergencies .) This allows us to predict and prevent the many extraordinary
events, more effective use of available forces and means of state To increase
the security common of the population.
Currently, the state register of PDO is a computer
database on companies, waterworks and other construction, systems and critical
infrastructure and transport, which as a result of accidents or natural
disasters may create a danger arose-collision disaster man-made and
Currently set up, checked for serviceability and trans-on
into trial operation in the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, first of all the State
Register of PDO, more than 7,700 objects. (Booklet
'Insurance Fund of Ukraine document 10 year
"- Sovereign pіdpriєmstvo" Agency іnformatsії, mіzhnarodnogo
spіvrobіtnitstva that rozvitku "Chernobil-іnterіnform" "- 2002
6. The danger of weapons
Munitions used in a socio-political conflicts, the
likelihood that today, unfortunately, completely exclude the impossible. An example of
this can serve as the events in Yugoslavia
(1999), when the internal conflict of the state intervened military alliance
(NATO). The result - thousands of dead and injured people, destroyed
homes, disadvantaged families and children.
In accordance with its functional purpose factors weapons
are very intense. Means of destruction fall into the usual using and weapons of
mass destruction (WMD). NBC refers to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
The use of weapons always creates an extraordinary
Nuclear weapons - the most powerful weapons of mass destruction. Affecting factors
(AF) of a nuclear explosion are shock (50% of the energy of the explosion),
light-thermal radiation (30%), penetrating radiation, electromagnetic pulse, p
/ and infection (15%) and secondary FS. Secondary factors
are affecting the result of the shock wave
and light. This may cause explosions, fires,
contamination by toxic substances, flood-determination. As the harmful effect of the secondary may
be superior to the AF of the primary.
The dimensions of the zones of factors affecting the WMD
depends on the cardinality of a nuclear weapon and conditions of use (land, air
and space explosion). In particular, the size of the zone of radioactive contamination
depend on weather conditions, but the deviation from the background radiation
levels can be fixed, even for a few scattered clouds turns around the globe.
Also, as with the accident at the nuclear zone of
radioactive release infections occurred.
The zone of destruction and fires linked: separate fires
arise in the weak zone of destruction, and in a zone of complete destruction
occur in the heat in the rubble.
Nuclear weapons have the hardest impact on the psyche of
The use of nuclear weapons on a massive scale will lead to
Factors affecting the chemical and biological weapons are
battle and poisonous matter (PM) The funds and bacterial Islands (BS). The destructive
effects of their exceptionally large at negligible concentrations and toxo
doses (7 mg of VX in contact with skin.)
Poisonous substances are: nerve (sarin, soman, VX),
blister (mustard), common poison (hydrocyanic acid, cyanogen), suffocating
(phosgene), and irritation psychochemical-mental action.
Emergency situations arise and with extensive use of
conventional weapons (high explosive and fragmentation ammunition,
ammunition-air explosives, incendiary weapons), especially in their
applications to the Institute
of Energy facilities,
chemical and petroleum industries. Only a year after the Gulf War was the last to put out the fire,
the oil industry. In this case, the secondary in the FS reflects factors
correspond to man-made disasters.
The primary factors affecting the conventional means of
destruction are high temperature and pressure, as well as the kinetic energy of
the balls, needles, pieces of metal, glass and plastics. It should be be
noted that fighting fuel-air explosives characteristics similar to those of
tactical nuclear weapons. Using a cascade of combat-set allows one to create a fiery plane
or fragmentation bombs kill zone area of 5.8 km2.
To ensure life safety in an emergency state create an
appropriate system in which one of the main parts of the Xia, is the Ministry
of Emergency Situations and Protection of the Chernobyl disaster.
In emergency situations people experience mental-on
voltage, which directly affect their security. This is an
important factor since the same must be considered in emergency situations.
Recently gained considerable importance of the information
factor. He is particularly relevant in emergency situations, when the
content is dependent on its course of action and behavior of large masses of
people. Honesty, objectivity and reliability of the information under
the conditions of multi-ethnic society, can only provide poly information
system, where the information public and various television and radio company,
newspaper reports can be compared and used determined tinned state of events. Therefore, to
maintain public safety, essential legislation supporting freedom of information
and the right of everyone to information, especially concerning the safety of
millet in the environment and being in the environment of people objects.