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Participants of the ISO-2009 [4]
Participants of the International student olympiad of a 2009 year
Participants of the ISO-2010 [32]
It is a category for those who going to make an attempt the forces in the olympiad of 2010. Это категория для тех кто собирается попробовать свои силы в олимпиаде 2010 года
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Participants of International student Internet-olympiad from discipline are Safety of living of man Участники Международной студенческой Интернет-олимпиады по дисциплине - Безопасность жизни и деятельности человека
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Students are student in a center preparation to participating in an olympiad and also students of internal and extra-mural form teaching wich studying disciplines related to safety of man and nature. Студенты обучающиеся в Центре подготовки к участию в олимпиаде, а также студенты очной и заочной формы обучения, изучающие дисциплины связанные с безопасностью человека и природы.
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4. The dangers of man-made disasters
5. Insurance documentation
6. The danger of weapons

4. The dangers of man-made disasters

The most serious man-made disasters on the territory of Ukraine may occur at power plants, chemical and petroleum pro-industry, hydraulic structures. A significant danger is posed as metallurgy, transportation, and mining.
According to statistics, these industries are the most dangerous-governmental in terms of creating an emergency for the entire world (Bhopal, Bashkiria). Major accident kills hundreds and even thousands of lives and causing huge property and environmental damage. In this case, it should be recalled alarming trend of increasing scale disasters, ie, to "extremely."
For Ukraine, the most dangerous is the chemical industry because of its broad development (1,200 plants in 140 cities, but the annual produce 260 tons of toxic substances, ammonia - a wire length of 814 km - in every kilometer of 55 tons of ammonia under the pressure of 90 atm.). In areas of possible contamination of the chemical, ie, of the spilled or vaporized toxic substances, there are more than 22 million people.
When chemical accidents toxic substances spilled on thousands of square meters, and the poisonous cloud spread to a depth of tens of kilometers and forms a zone of contamination in the area hundreds of square kilometers.
The greatest danger of nuclear energy facilities are. The number of nuclear power is much smaller than the objects of the chemical industry (5 AES).


However, due to the exceptional magnitude of possible disaster, nuclear power plants can be considered relatively in greatest dangerous objects in terms of creating an emergency.
The Chernobyl disaster - the largest man-caused disaster in the world in its consequences. The contaminated with radioactive (p / a) substantial  in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia are about 1 million people., Resettled hundreds of thousands of people.
The disaster at the nuclear power plant as a chemical facility may be accompanied by fire and explosion (even nuclear). Thus, a complex lesion with striking factors: high temperatures, the products of combustion, shock, falling parts  constructions, radioactive contamination.
For the territory of Ukraine are very dangerous accident sites the oil and gas industry (8 refineries, tank farms more than 800, more than four thousand miles to oil and gas pipelines - one mile of 250 tons of fuel).
Most of the potential danger to Ukraine can present 13 large hydraulic structures. In areas where flooding is possible hydro-affecting factors which have already been discussed earlier.
In recent years the relationship manifested emergency situations of technogenic nature with the provision of human activity in big cities. An example is the accident at the sewage plant (village Dikanevka, Kharkiv region) in 1997. As a result of failure of the sewer system, water supply was turned off for a few months' in the city with a population of nearly 2 million residents in one of the hottest periods of the year (June-August). Factors affecting this situation, it turned were-activation of the high temperature environment, the deterioration of the epidemiological situation, etc.
 Analysis of technogenic emergencies - in the structure is dominated by technical reasons satisfactory technical-mechanical state of the production facilities and a significant deterioration of the ground of productive assets, mainly due to the difficult economic status of industrial enterprises, which does not allow a timely and fully implement the necessary activities for technical upgrading.
Among the causes of organizational core is a violation of security requirements during the operation of the equipment, machinery, vehicles and non-compliance with the rules of technological production processes.
As part of psycho-physiological causes of the most typical are-are instances of unlawful acts of individuals and deliberate violation of the rules of the road during vehicle operation.
By the elimination of man-made emergencies that arose involved sub-Ukrainian Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the consequences of Chernobyl disaster, other ministries and central and local executive bodies, enterprises and organizations.
The greatest number of disaster-related fires and explosions, arises in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions.
The technical nature of the causes of man-made emergencies at industrial facilities inherent in most of these emergencies, chief among them is the poor maintenance of states of fixed assets.
High particle is purely organizational causes of emergencies, through evidence of a low technological discipline in production well, especially the environmentally hazardous, ignoring the requirements of environmental regulations and standards in the industry,
building, utilities, transportation and other areas.
Therefore, an emergency peace time, as a rule, are characterized by significant areas of the damaging factors, their high intensity and a combination of several hazards. However, more complex and major emergencies may arise in a military conflict. The events of the last decade of the twentieth century, suggest the need to consider the influence of military conflicts on the livelihoods of the civilian population.

5. Insurance documentation

In carrying out rescue operations, elimination of emergency situations and liquidation functions of accidents and disasters, it is very important documentation that reflects the state of the communications system of objects, their architecture, composition, etc. As a rule, resulting in
 conflict situations, documents, especially on paper, destroyed, or acquire a look that is difficult to use them. In addition, there are situations where access to documents is not possible for various reasons we (fire, theft, flood, etc.), and the measures to be taken urgently.
Documentation is required rescuers to perform their functions. And also, those who lost it, for various reasons, to restore the functioning of the production or organization. And in the end, it is necessary-bob to investigate the cause and development of emergency measures for the Alert the possible repetition of such situations.
Insurance fund documentation was created by the Council of ministers of the USSR of April 13, 1959. However, his work was classified as its main purpose, at the time of creation, has been booking information for the needs of mobilization preparation of the USSR.
In Ukraine, the insurance fund documentation was created in accordance with the Decree of President of Ukraine from October 21, 1992. Since 1992, Ukraine started functioning State Research - Production Center insurance fund documentation of Ukraine, as the central authority for the organization and management of the establishment and functioning of the insurance fund documentation of Ukraine.
The documentation is stored in the traditional manner on paper, are constantly at risk of being lost as a result of natural and manmade disasters. Computer media can not ensure long-term preservation of information chit and after a few years (2-3 years old, in bad conditions, or 5-10 years for good) may be lost. Also note that access to information does not change but the carriers do not allow it considered reliable.
The above-mentioned drawbacks are deprived of microfilm, which ensure the preservation of information guaranteed at least 150 years old. The volume of information on microfilm at the standard reduction of the volume is 70 times smaller, which facilitates the task of creating special devices to store them. These devices preclude their loss or damage.
Of particular importance, this work has acquired since 2001 in connection with the release of the Law of Ukraine "On insurance fund documentation of Ukraine" (March 22, 2001). In this law the main tasks have been identified, legal, economic, and organizational position on the insurance fund documentation.
Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe, was approved by the Programmer of Action of the State Department of Insurance form orientation of documents relating to the implementation of state policy in sphere of protection of the population and territories from emergency situations of Technology and Natural character warning and control them in periods of up to 2005.
The main provisions of the state insurance foundation of the document:
• Obligation to maintain records necessary for the needs of the
defense Ukraine, the recovery of production, operation and maintenance of production of defense, mobilization, and economic importance, for construction (reconstruction), rescue and emergency and recovery operations during emergency situations and in the special period, and for the preservation of cultural heritage;
• Preservation of State and other statutory secrecy;
• Compliance with legislation of Ukraine on Copyright;

The main objectives of the State Department's insurance fund before it:
• Coordinate and monitor the formation of an insurance fund of the documentation of Ukraine, its conduct, maintaining and issuing documentation provided to users of the insurance fund documentation;
• conducting the State register of documents of the insurance fund;
• Maintenance of State Register of man-made and environmentally hazardous facilities in Ukraine;
• Organize and conduct research in the formation and preservation of records of the insurance fund of Ukraine (the Law of Ukraine "On Ukraine's insurance fund documentation").
Particular attention should be paid to the certification of potentially hazardous objects (PHO) and maintenance of the state register of PHO.
January 18, 2001 Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma signed a Ukraine "On the objects of increased danger." This law defined the legal, economic, social and institutional foundations of ventures, associated with the objects of increased danger, and seeks ways to protect human health and environment from the harmful effects of accidents at these sites by preventing their occurrence, constraints (localization) development and recovery.
In accordance with this Act, the declaration must hold business entities such objects.
Declaration of dangerous is a document that defines a set of activity to that used by business for the aim of accident prevention, preparedness and containment, elimination of accidents and their consequences.
The order declaring major hazard risk is approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated July 11, 2002 № 956. The document states that it applies to all business entities owned or user-research institutes which have high-risk facilities, as well as on all subjects of economic activities that have the intention to start building the proof-objects of increased danger.
In analyzing the risk of increased danger to use at DSTU 2156-93 "Bezpechnіst Promyslova pіdpriemstv. Termіn is the curvature-chennya. "DSTU 2960-94" Organіzatsіya Promyslova virobnitstva. Osnovnі in nyattya termіni viznachennya that. "
Work on the certification of potentially dangerous objects (PDO) and territories of the risks of emergencies, those nogennogo natural character, and the establishment of the State Register of PDO is performed in accordance with the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine 7.02.01.g. Number 122. The main objective of this work - is to identify all considerably the potential sources of emergencies, provision of accounting and oversight at the state level and the selection of these high-risk sites (ie sites with a higher chance of accidents and the highest big dangerous consequences of possible accidents Emergencies .) This allows us to predict and prevent the many extraordinary events, more effective use of available forces and means of state To increase the security common of the population.
Currently, the state register of PDO is a computer database on companies, waterworks and other construction, systems and critical infrastructure and transport, which as a result of accidents or natural disasters may create a danger arose-collision disaster man-made and environmental issues.
Currently set up, checked for serviceability and trans-on into trial operation in the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, first of all the State Register of PDO, more than 7,700 objects. (Booklet 'Insurance Fund of Ukraine document   10  year "- Sovereign pіdpriєmstvo" Agency іnformatsії, mіzhnarodnogo spіvrobіtnitstva that rozvitku "Chernobil-іnterіnform" "- 2002 to R.10.).

6. The danger of weapons

Munitions used in a socio-political conflicts, the likelihood that today, unfortunately, completely exclude the impossible. An example of this can serve as the events in Yugoslavia (1999), when the internal conflict of the state intervened military alliance (NATO). The result - thousands of dead and injured people, destroyed homes, disadvantaged families and children.
In accordance with its functional purpose factors weapons are very intense. Means of destruction fall into the usual using and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). NBC refers to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
The use of weapons always creates an extraordinary situation.
Nuclear weapons - the most powerful weapons of mass destruction. Affecting factors (AF) of a nuclear explosion are shock (50% of the energy of the explosion), light-thermal radiation (30%), penetrating radiation, electromagnetic pulse, p / and infection (15%) and secondary FS. Secondary factors are affecting the result of the
shock wave

 and light. This may cause explosions, fires, contamination by toxic substances, flood-determination. As the harmful effect of the secondary may be superior to the AF of the primary.
The dimensions of the zones of factors affecting the WMD depends on the cardinality of a nuclear weapon and conditions of use (land, air and space explosion). In particular, the size of the zone of radioactive contamination depend on weather conditions, but the deviation from the background radiation levels can be fixed, even for a few scattered clouds turns around the globe.
Also, as with the accident at the nuclear zone of radioactive release infections occurred.
The zone of destruction and fires linked: separate fires arise in the weak zone of destruction, and in a zone of complete destruction occur in the heat in the rubble.
Nuclear weapons have the hardest impact on the psyche of man.
The use of nuclear weapons on a massive scale will lead to global catastrophe.
Factors affecting the chemical and biological weapons are battle and poisonous matter (PM) The funds and bacterial Islands (BS). The destructive effects of their exceptionally large at negligible concentrations and toxo doses (7 mg of VX in contact with skin.)
Poisonous substances are: nerve (sarin, soman, VX), blister (mustard), common poison (hydrocyanic acid, cyanogen), suffocating (phosgene), and irritation psychochemical-mental action.
Emergency situations arise and with extensive use of conventional weapons (high explosive and fragmentation ammunition, ammunition-air explosives, incendiary weapons), especially in their applications to the Institute of Energy facilities, chemical and petroleum industries. Only a year after the Gulf War was the last to put out the fire, the oil industry. In this case, the secondary in the FS reflects factors correspond to man-made disasters.
The primary factors affecting the conventional means of destruction are high temperature and pressure, as well as the kinetic energy of the balls, needles, pieces of metal, glass and plastics. It should be be noted that fighting fuel-air explosives characteristics similar to those of tactical nuclear weapons. Using a cascade of combat-set allows one to create a fiery plane or fragmentation bombs kill zone area of ​​5.8 km2.
To ensure life safety in an emergency state create an appropriate system in which one of the main parts of the Xia, is the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Protection of the Chernobyl disaster.
In emergency situations people experience mental-on voltage, which directly affect their security. This is an important factor since the same must be considered in emergency situations.
Recently gained considerable importance of the information factor. He is particularly relevant in emergency situations, when the content is dependent on its course of action and behavior of large masses of people. Honesty, objectivity and reliability of the information under the conditions of multi-ethnic society, can only provide poly information system, where the information public and various television and radio company, newspaper reports can be compared and used determined tinned state of events. Therefore, to maintain public safety, essential legislation supporting freedom of information and the right of everyone to information, especially concerning the safety of millet in the environment and being in the environment of people objects.


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