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Home » 2012 » March » 1 » LIFE SAFETY-THROUGH FOR EMERGENCIES
16:55
LIFE SAFETY-THROUGH FOR EMERGENCIES

Theme 4. LIFE SAFETY-THROUGH FOR EMERGENCIES
Questions

1. Classification and emergency settings
2. Disaster
3. Emergency medical and biological nature

Potential hazards in the nature of any human activity is always present. Realization of the potential dangers of lead to any adverse situations, characterized by the destruction, damage and hyper-underwear people, animals and plants. 

 

Potential hazards in the nature of any human activity is always present. Realization of the potential dangers of lead to any adverse situations, characterized by the destruction, damage and hyper-underwear people, animals and plants.

1. Classification and emergency settings

Under the emergency, understand the situation that has arisen as a result of an accident, disaster or use of weapons, and is characterized by sudden disturbances in the viability of populations, the functioning of the economy, social sphere and the solution environment.
The distinctive, high-quality feature is the presence of disaster risk to life and health of large groups of people. Emergency calls for management, not only rescue, but often the measures to protect large groups of people, until the evacuation (resettlement), followed by the organization of their livelihood.
In defining the concept of using emergency crash, disaster, and of natural disasters. Divide by accident, disaster is rather conventional. It just convenient to distinguish between them on the basis of quality - the presence or absence of condition of the victims.
The disaster - a broader concept than an accident. The accident may be the cause of the disaster, and catastrophe - the result of an accident.
Each disaster has its physical nature, the causes of the onset-of and driving forces, the character development, especially the impact on human Century and its habitat. Emergencies are multidimensional and can be classified by a large number of attributes. The most common classification includes the allocation of emergency for the reasons of occurrence, pace and scale of development.
For reasons of occurrence, conditional, we can distinguish these classes emergencies:
natural disasters;
man-made accidents and disasters;
man-made disasters;
socio-political conflicts.
Natural disasters - natural hazards or processes that are extraordinary in nature and lead to the disruption of everyday way of life more or less considerable populations of human life, destruction of property, then there is an emergency, the cause, which are natural processes or phenomena.
Technological disaster - the sudden failure of machines, mechanisms and assemblies, accompanied by explosions, fires, a radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination of large areas, the group defeat and loss of life, then there is an emergency situation, caused by the technique.
Anthropogenic disaster - caused by the activities of the business man, a qualitative change in the biosphere, have harmful effects on humans, flora and fauna and the environment as a whole, there is an emergency, the cause of which is human activity. For this kind of environmental disasters include catastrophe.
The socio-political conflicts - very acute form-resolution differences between states with the use of modern means of destruction, as well as within the state - among the various population groups, Memo, accompanied by violence and destruction. That is, it is an emergency situation occurs due to the relationship between groups of people.

The speed of the spread of emergency may be to classify: the sudden (earthquakes, explosions, traffic accident,), rapid (fire, accident, with the formation of hydrodynamic wave breakthrough, an accident with the spread of toxic substances) in the moderate (flood of lava during the eruption of the volcano, the accident releasing radioactive substances) to smooth (drought, epidemics, accidents at industrial wastewater treatment plants, soil and water pollution damage-governmental chemicals).
     To determine the category of an emergency on the scale it is necessary both to assess the damaged area, the severity of consequences of direct and indirect effects (violations of the links between of the region and the objects of the economy).

On this basis the complex emergency situations may be sub-divided: the local (On-site), local (district), regional, national and global. It should be noted that the minimum scale, which is classified as an emergency, it is an object in general.
The boundaries between these types and classes of emergency situations to a certain extent arbitrary.
An important characteristic of emergency situations are affecting factors (AF).
By their nature, factors affecting emergency is not differs from the previously considered dangerous and harmful factors.
      The following description of an emergency is directly related to its main feature -scale. For this purpose we introduce the notion of coverage, if the striking factor – the object, phenomenon, process, and the zone of contamination, if the pension fund - a substance, liquid, gas. Coverage (infection, injury) - the space on which a pension fund. In recent times been increasingly used the term "emergency zone" instead of "lesion."
       If the affected area (action) AF there were people, animals, plants, buildings, utilities and urban-energy networks (UEN) they were subjected to defeat and destruction. In this case we speak of 
the (damage areas) lesions. Lesion - a space that is a result of the AF surface is defeated people, animals, plants have the destruction of buildings, structures, UEN. There are simple lesions caused by the action of a AF, and complex, when the lesion occurs under the action of several AF. 

Consider the major disaster risks specific to Ukraine.


2. Disaster

For each natural disaster (ND) is characterized by its inherent AF, causing negative effects.
Most people on Earth have suffered from floods (40% of total damage), hurricanes (20%), earthquakes and droughts (15%). About 10% of the total damage accounts for other types ND (tsunami, volcanic eruption, avalanche). Separate ND kill tens of thousands of lives. Only earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the last thousand years, killing more than three million people. The annual property damage from ND tens of billion dollars.
In Ukraine, the following ND earthquake (Crimea), hurricanes, floods, fires, landslides, snow drifts,
epizootics and epidemics.
Consider the dangers of some of them.
The earthquake - tremors and vibrations of the earth's crust, causing mye-most tectonic activity.
Coverage of the AF isolated on the basis of assessment of the forces of earthquakes. At the same time using the Richter Scale and the MSK-64.
The degree of shaking of the International MSK-64 scale may amount lyat from 1 to 12 points. We estimate the level of destruction. Earthquake intensity at a fixed point only devices, 6-7 – ball - violate a normal life and are associated with health risks (such as cracks, spalling of individual pieces of buildings), and more than 9 points - within minutes or even seconds can lead to Mass loss (collapsing walls and ne-rekrytiya).
With the help of a 9-point scale Richter estimate the total energy fluctuations. Scores measured by the magnitude (M) - notional value is proportional to the logarithm of the amplitude of displacement of the particles soil. That is an increase in strength by one point earthquake on the Richter scale corresponds to an increase in the amplitude of the oscillations in this place ten times.
Conditional oscillation center (hypocenter) is located at a depth of several tens of kilometers. Its projection on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. Around him, in accordance with the scoring zoned area of ​​the earthquake.
In the area of ​​the earthquake may have several lesions. 
Formed as a rule complex lesions.
Primary effects of the earthquake are the gravitational force has struck parts of buildings and structures, the kinetic energy of falling structural elements, infrasound, mental strain,, as well as secondary factors affecting - fires
, infection of poisonous and radioactive substances, flooding.
Almost reduce the impact of factors affecting earthquake (break the causal link), you can either except for the construction and living in seismically hazardous areas, or construction-proof buildings to meet seismic area. Comparison of the number of victims of earthquake in California (60 pers.) And Armenia (25-45 thousand people.) Shows exceptional efficiency of the second approach.
In Ukraine, the most destructive
earthquakes probable in the Crimea.
Hurricanes - the winds whose speed exceeds 30 m / s (cyclones and typhoons -> 50 m / s). Magnitude of the wind speed is determined by the area of
​​the hurricane. Within the boundaries of this zone there are lesions that characterize The available breakdown structures, communication lines and power transmission, bridges. Hurricanes uproot and pick up in the air trees. The main Fermi surface is the kinetic energy of the air masses.
In this case, the direct air wave attacks, as well as under-adoption of the air and then drop about 60% of all injuries. About 40% of injuries occur because of the blows inflicted by moving objects. By damaging factors also include hurricane infrasound and mental stress
On the territory of Ukraine may be severe storms (tornadoes) with a velocity of wind up to a hundred meters per second.
Flood - a temporary inundation of vast areas with water as a result of raising its level, caused by various factors (flood, rainfall, tsunami, dam
crush).
Space, flooded with water, a flood zone, in which the Torah can be formed lesions. In lesions floods occur the destruction and damage to buildings and structures, loss of life, animals and crops. Striking factor-mi are flooded water and the kinetic energy of motion.
      In Ukraine, the only areas of possible flooding along the Dnieper - residence about 2 million people.
The fire - an uncontrolled combustion process is a special focus. The main types of fire as a natural disaster, covering an large area (up to million hectares
), are the landscape fires - forest (grass-roots, horse-riding, underground) and grassland (field). Factors affecting fire ramie are high temperature, the products of combustion (smoke), a non-oxygen abundance, and mental strain. In lesions in the fire destroyed wealth, people are dying, the animals of vegetable. In 80% of the forest and steppe fires occur because of non-compliance with fire safety regulations, and only 20% of cases because of the cumbersome lens and as a result of spontaneous combustion. In Ukraine, fires, both natural hazards are possible throughout. Especially hard to fight forest fires in the mountains (the Crimea).
During the first 9 months of 2002 there was 52 emergency medical and biological character which is at the same period in 2001. Because of these events of 27 persons (including 16 children) were killed and 901 (including 418 children) have suffered, damages in excess of 1 347 thousand hryvnia.

3 Emergency Medical and biological nature
Most emergency medical and biological nature accounted for by-ment and infectious morbidity.
The greatest number of emergency medical and biological nature noted in the Donetsk, Lugansk, Transcarpathian, Vinnitsa and Sumy regions.
• It should be noted that most of those killed and injured fixed due to poisoning of the population, dominated by food poisoning and carbon monoxide poisoning.
It should be emphasized that the reasons that led to the poisoning of the population, there are quite traditional reasons. This is, first and foremost, the use of most victims of substandard food products purchased as a rule, in areas of spontaneous trade, which does not pass of the respective sanitary and veterinary examination, hygiene standards, as individuals, and government agencies, poor state of potable water, the violation of safety rules and the like.
No less a threat to people is infectious morbidity of people. Outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases, namely hepatitis - A major factor in the spread of hepatitis - A large population is the use of poor-quality drinking water from local water supply, emergency condition which often leads to pore, and as a result, water pollution, including hepatitis viruses - A. By this reason, in August 2002 in Rivne region for hepatitis-A-ached for 20 persons (including 13 children).
Threatening situation with an infectious disease to salmonella, in Mykolaiv, Rivne and Kirovohrad, and Odessa regions. Of particular concern will cause the incidence of salmonellosis, infants are not directly ancestral to the department of hospitals. Experts of the district and SES implemented a set of relevant medical, diagnostic and
against epidemic  events.
Concerned about the importation of malaria into the territory of Ukraine.
Had reported single cases of rabies.
There have been cases of infectious diseases in farm of animals, most of which are caused by the incidence of rabies of a large cattle in private households.
In the last 10 years all over the world has witnessed a significant increase in spread of tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the world every year for about 8 - 10 million new cases of TB-s and 3 million deaths from it. In this regard, in 1993, WHO declared tuberculosis worldwide danger. In 2002 in Ukraine over-register more than 600 thousand patients with tuberculosis, and the situation is steadily worsening. Tuberculosis - an infectious disease caused by myco-bacterium tuberculosis (MBT), they are also the Koch bacillus or TB
sticks. Office resistant in the environment, in dried sputum they survive by 1-1.5 years in the water - 5 months., Milk - 3 weeks. The vast majority of the disease is transmitted by airborne droplets or airborne dust by. Tuberculosis is widespread. The fate of every person to be skilled in-TB, but only in some people infection can turn into a disease. Tuberculosis - a common infectious disease and social but also due to the disease. Sick, especially people with weakened immunity.

In assessing the above, it can be argued that the negative manifestations of a tendency emergency medical and biological nature of the saved and the direct-module depends on the epidemiological and sanitary situation in the state. And given the low level of welfare and health culture of the population, the impoverishment of the general population, poor quality of food and drinking water, lack of domestic drugs, comrade for the diagnosis of a number of acute intestinal infections (particularly exotic, which can be imported) and other factors, a high degree of environmental contamination of infectious agents, the risk of these events is quite high in any region of the state.



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